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A common question we hear is, “Do I have to readopt my internationally adopted child in the U.S. in order for them to get citizenship?” The answer is that it depends on what type of Visa your child received when coming to the United States. IH visas are for children coming from Hague Convention countries and IR Visas are for children coming from non-convention countries. The crucial distinction, though, is the number. For IR-3 and IH-3 Visas, a child automatically acquires citizenship upon admission to the U.S., provided they are under eighteen. They will be mailed their Certificate of Citizenship. Children arriving with an IR-4 or IH-4 Visa do not acquire automatic citizenship upon entry but are permanent residents until they are adopted in the United States. After the adoption, they may apply for the Certificate of Citizenship, which requires a fee, documentation, and appearance at a swearing-in ceremony. It is vital that the readoption of a child with an IR-4 or IH-4 Visa be completed prior to the child’s eighteenth birthday. For cases in which the child is now over 18, an adult adoption may be a possibility, but consultation with an immigration attorney, in addition to an adoption attorney, is highly recommended.